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Gakondo

Umurage w'Abakurambere b'Urwanda

ubagejejweho na
Rose-Marie Mukarutabana


  Introduction (EN)  
  Introduction (FR)  
  Ijambo ry'Ibanze  

  The Royal Lists  
  Les Listes royales  
  Ubucurabwenge  

  The Royal Myths  
  Les Mythes royaux  
  Ibitekerezo  

  The Royal Poetry  
  Les Poésies royales  
  Ibisigo  

  The Royal Rituals  
  Les Rituels royaux  
  Ubwiru  

  Other Texts  
  Autres Textes  
  Ibindi  

  RMM's Papers  
  Papiers Divers  
  Inyandiko bwiite za RMM  

  Index of Articles  
  Index des Articles  
  Irondooro ry'Ibirimo  

 

Ijambo ry'ibanze

Bigirumwami na Kagame
Abakurambere badusigiye byinshi. Tugira n'Imana, aho abazungu batwigishirije kwandika, haboneka abantu nka Aloys Bigirumwami na Alexis Kagame, n'abandi Banyarwanda, mbese n'abanyamahanga, bashishikariye kubaza no kwiga ibya kera, bakabidushyirira mu bitabo. Abo bagabo babiri ni bo mvuze amazina, kuko ari bo bakuru b'abandi banditsi bose. Kandi basa n'abagabanye imirimo y'ibyerekeye kutubikira umuco karande, n'ubwo hari byinshi bahurizaho. Bigirumwami yibanze ku Migenzo isangwa muri Rubanda, Kagame akurikirana Imihango y'i Bwami n'Amateka y'Abami.

Na none kandi urebye neza, wasanga abandi banditsi baragiye bakurikira inzira abo bagabo berekanye. Bamwe bakurikiye inzira ya Kagame, bahugira mu mateka n'ibisigo n'ibitekerezo birondoora iby'Abami, imihango y'i Bwami ikaba ariyo ibatera amatsiko. Naho abakurikiye Bigirumwami, ukabasanga mu migenzo yo kuraguza no guterekera no kubandwa, bakabaririza impigi n'inzaratsi, imiziro n'imiziririzo, n'imihango y'abakobwa n'abagore, bakiga imiti ya kinyarwanda, mbese n'uburozi, bakabaza ubupfura n'ubutindi, ubuhemu n'ubuntu.


Iby'i Bwami n'ibyo ku Karubanda
Ibyo rero byari byiza, kuko Urwanda nyine rugizwe n'Umwami na Rubanda. Inyigisho za kera zavugaga ko Umurwa w'Umwami wari nk'agashushanyo k'Urwanda: ukagira i Bwami, ukagira no ku Karubanda. Hakaba imirimo ikorerwa i Jabiro mu nzu y'i Kambere, hakaba ikorerwa mu ngoro i Bwami nyine, hakaba n'ijya ku Karubanda. Kwiga iby'i Bwami rero, nk'uko Kagame yabigenje, nta ko bisa. Ariko hakabaho no kwiga ibikorerwa muri Rubanda, nk'ibyo Bigirumwami yihase. Byombi bifite akamaro cyane.

Nyamara ubanza abakurikiye inzira ya Kagame bararuse abakurikije Bigirumwami. Ibyo byaba byaratewe n'impamvu nyinshi, zirimo ko ibyo Bigirumwami yakoraga, mur'icyo gihe byakundaga kwita "ibipagani", bigatuma benshi babisuzugura. Ibyo rero si byiza, kuko byatumye iby'i Bwami bimenyekana kurusha ibyo muri Rubanda, kandi ubundi bitagombaga gusigana. Mbese twavuga ko ibya Gakondo n'umuco karande, byaba bimeze nk'imbyino, igira abatera n'abikiriza, ababyinnyi bakabona gusobanura imirindi.

Kwibanda ku by'i Bwami ukareka ibya Rubanda kandi byononnye byinshi mu Rwanda. Icya mbere, byatumye Abanyarwanda bata ibya kera byiza kandi bifite akamaro. Icya kabiri, byatumye amateka y'Urwanda yandikwa mu buryo butuzuye, akarondoora iby'i Bwami, akavuga abari bakomeye ku ngoma za kera, ariko akibagirwa Rubanda. Abanditsi b'ayo mateka bakamenyesha iby'abavugwaga mu nkuru zerekeye Abami, ariko bakibagirwa ko mu bihugu byose, abavugwa mur'iyo myanya yo hejuru ari bake cyane. Nyamara abatavugwa muri izo nzego z'ubutegetsi, baba bavugwa ahandi, ibyabo bikamenyakana mu bindi bikorwa, bikamenyeshwa n'ubwenge n'ubuhanga n'ubushobozi bwa bene byo, bikarangwa n'akamaro bagiriye abo babana, ba hafi cyangwa ba kure.


Amateka y'Urwanda ntaramenyekana
Ng'ibyo ibyabuze ubivuga. Twabuze uwandika amateka y'abatware b'imiryango, intwari n'ingirakamaro zo mu ntara n'imisozi y'Urwanda, tubura utuvugira abahanuzi n'abapfumu b'iwacu, tubura uvuga abavuzi n'abagangahuzi, tubura uvuga abizihirwa no guhamiriza no kubyina, kuririmba no gukiranura inanga, tubura uwandika ibikorwa by'abahanga b'ubworozi n'ubuhinzi, abubatsi n'ababaji, abacuzi n'ababumbyi, n'abandi bahanga mu myuga n'ubukorikori. Kuri ubu, aho amashuli ya kizungu atangiye kubyigishiriza, benshi barahatanira kubibonamo za diporome n'izindi mpamyabushobozi, abandi bagahahisha bimwe mu byo bacyibuka, ariko ubanza abashoboye kubaririza uko byagendaga kera, ku buryo bwigishijwe n'Abakurambere, ngo babishyire mu bitabo, bakiri bake cyane.

Ibyo byose biragaragaza ko umuco wa kinyarwanda, n'imigenzo ya kera, n'ubwenge bwa Gakondo, bigikeneye kwitabwaho. Kagame na Bigirumwami, n'ababakurikiye, bakoze ibyo bashoboye, kandi si bike. Ariko ntibihagije, bigomba gukurikiranwa, bikuzuzwa, bikanakosorwa mu byo batashoboye gusoza no kunonosora, cyangwa se batagezeho.

Mu bikorwa byose bya ngombwa, icyihutirwa cyane, mbona ari ukwandika amateka y'Urwanda neza, atavuga iby'Abami gusa, atabogamiye ku bari bakomeye gusa, ahubwo acishije mu nzira umuco karande utwigisha, ngo Umwami agirwa na Rubanda, agatera bakikiriza, batera akikiriza, Urwanda rukabona kwizihirwa. Umwami agirwa na Rubanda, Rubanda rukagirwa n'Umwami. Mbona rero ari aho twahera, hakaba amateka y'Urwanda nyayo, azigisha abato b'ubu n'abazaza. Bakamenya ko Urwanda rwaremwe n'Abami koko, ariko bafatanyije na Rubanda, kuko nyine ari nta mwami wigira, agirwa na Rubanda. Murabona ko ibi mbisubiramo cyane, kugira ngo byumvikane neza. Amateka y'Urwanda si ay'Abami gusa, si n'ay'Ibikomangoma gusa. Kuvuga amateka ya kera si ukuvuga ibikorwa by'abategetsi gusa, cyangwe bya politike gusa, ahubwo ni ukwerekana ibyo Urwanda rwari rwaragezeho, mu mpande zose z'ubuzima. Urugero natanga, ni nk'abo njya numva bavuga ko Umunyarwandakazi kera yari yaragowe, yarajujubijwe, nta gaciro agira. Ibyo jyewe nkabona atari ukuri na gato, ahubwo mu kwubaha abagore n'abakobwa, Urwanda rwarushaga andi mahanga menshi. Ariko kugira ngo tubimenye neza, tugereranije n'uko byari bimeze mu bindi bihugu, bigomba ubushakashatsi, ibyemezo bigashakwa kandi bikagira ikibihamya. Birumvikana rero ko impande zose z'umuco zigomba kwigwa neza, zigasesengurwa bihagije, tukabona kugira amateka y'Urwanda nyayo.

Mu gihe tugitegereje abanyabwenge bo kutwigira ibyo bintu, bakazabitwigisha, umuntu wese ubishatse yahera ku cyo azi kandi ashoboye. Jyewe rero nzibanda ku byerekeye kumenyekanisha bimwe mu byanditswe, ari ibya Kagame, ari ibya Bigirumwami, ari n'abandi. Sinzi ko hari icyo bizafasha abo bahanga dutegereje, ariko ntibizabura akamaro.

Hambere aha natangiye kujya nandika kuri za forums internet zigwiriyeho Abanyarwanda, ngashyiraho bimwe mu byo nasanze mu bitabo by'abo Bakuru bacu. Mbona abantu benshi babishishikariye, bifuza uwabageza ku bumenyi bw'ibya kera by'i Rwanda. Mperaho ngerageza kureba uko nakwegeranya bimwe-bimwe mu nyigisho za Gakondo nibwira ko byagira akamaro. Mbonye bimaze kugwira, ngira nti reka mbe mbishize kuri site internet, ababishaka bazajye babona aho babikura.

Na none ariko kubishyira mu bitabo byaruta kubishyira kuri internet, kuko abagera kuri ibyo byuma ni bake cyane. Ariko burya n'ibitabo nasanze bidasomwa na benshi. Nyamara ibyo si byo byabuza uwandika kwandika. Na byo rero bizatinda bigerweho. Ubwo ntihazanabura bamwe mu bazasoma ibiri kuri iyi site bazagira ibibashimisha, bakazabikurikirana, bakabisesengura.


Ubumenyi bwa kera
Mu byo nzashyira aha rero, ndumva nzagerageza gukurikira za nzira zombi navugaga: ibyo Padri Kagame yanditse, n'ibyo Musenyeri Bigirumwami yasesenguye. Byose tuzabiha umwanya wabyo. Ni ukuvuga rero ko tuzibanda ku nyigisho nkuru, zimwe z'Ibitekerezo n'Imigani yerekeye Abami, n'Ubwiru n'Ubucurabwenge, n'Ibisigo, mbese n'ibindi tuzabona byashimisha abantu, bikabatera kumenya ibya kera, abari basanzwe babizi nabo bakazabona uko bahugura abatabizi, bakabona aho bahera bigisha abato n'abakuru batabonye uburyo bwo kwiga ibya kera.

Hari abashobora kuba bibaza igituma nsa n'uwihase ibyo by'i Bwami, kuko babona ari ibyahise, bitagifite umwanya mu Rwanda rushya. Impamvu ni uko ibyerekeye umuco karande byagengwaga n'Abami, mbese nk'uko leta zo muri iki gihe cya kizungu ari zo zibazwa ibyerekeye uburezi bw'igihugu, zikabazwa guteza umuco imbere, no gushaka abanyabwenge n'abanyaburyo bo kwigisha abato n'abakuru, kugira ngo ubumenyi bw'igihugu butubuke kandi bukure bujya imbere.

Na kera i Rwanda rero ni ko byari bimeze: Abami n'abagaragu babo bakuru ni bo babazwaga ibyo. Abiru babazwaga iby'Ubwiru, Abacurabwenge bakabaza Amasekuruza y'Abami, Abasizi bakabazwa Ibisigo, naho Abatware b'Umwami bakabazwa ibyo kwigisha abato muri ya matorero tujya twumva, ari yo yari amashuli ya kera. Kuba nta mwami Urwanda rukigira, ntibizatubuza kwiga ibyakozwe mu gihe cy'Abami, kuko ariho imizi yarwo ishingiye. Kubyiga ni ngombwa cyane.

Mu nyigisho z'ingenzi rero, habaga izo twagereranya n'ibitabo by'ubu, kubera ko byabaga bifatwa mu mutwe, nk'uko nyine ahandi babyandika ku mpapuro, aba kera b'iwacu bakabyandika mu mutwe.


Ubucurabwenge
Urugero twatanga ni Ubucurabwenge, ari bwo Amasekuruza y'Abami. Kera habaga abanyabwenge bagenewe kumenya ibisekuruza by'Abami n'Abagabekazi, bakabiroondora neza, bigafatwa mu mutwe - bavuga kubitora - uko umwami yimye bakavuga Amasekuruza ye n'ay'Umugabekazi.

Amasekuruza y'Abami na yo Kagame yarayanditse, aza kuyashyira mu gitabo cyitwa Inganji Kalinga (Kabgayi, icapa rya 1959, pp. 98-101). Icyo gitabo ariko abagisigaranye ni bake, sinzi ko hazaboneka uburyo bwo kwongera kugicapa, kugira ngo abantu bongere basome ibintu byiza kandi by'ingira-kamaro uwo muhanga wacu yanditsemo.


Ibitekerezo by'Abami
Ibindi by'ingenzi twavuga, ni Ibitekerezo by'Abami. Yego ibyo byo ntibyafatwaga mu mutwe ijambo kw'ijambo nk'ibyo tumaze kuvuga, umuntu yapfaga gusa kumenya ibitekerezo uko bikurikirana, ariko nyine urebye nabyo ntibyahindukaga cyane. Ibitekerezo rero ni byo byavugaga amateka y'Abami, bikavuga ibikorwa bakoze, n'akamaro bagiriye Urwanda, n'uko babayeho, n'icyo basize baraze ababazunguye.

Burya kandi, n'ubwo Ibitekerezo byamenyaga benshi, na Rubanda rwose rukajya ruca iyo migani y'Abami, habagaho abazi iby'i Bwami neza, bakajya bamenya inkuru z'imvaho, bitari ibyo abantu bapfa kwivugira. Bikagira kandi abahora babivuga, kugira ngo bitagenda byibagirana uko ingoma zikurikirana, ibihe bigaha ibindi.

Umufaransa w'umumisiyoneri wa kera, witwaga Padri André Pagès (Un royaume Hamite au centre de l'Afrique), wanditse ibitekerezo byinshi muri za 1933, yavuze ko bajyaga bamubwira ko kugenda abaza Rubanda rwa giseseka bituma yandika ibifuditse. Bati dore nk'Igitekerezo cya Ruganzu, iyo umuntu adakurikiranyije inkuru ze neza, usanga bigenda bisobana, ntumenye inzira yabyo, ntumenye igikorwa yakoze mbere n'icyo yakurikijeho, maze bikaba urujijo.

Ibitekerezo byanditswe na benshi, ariko Padri Kagame niwe wakoranije byinshi, n'ubwo hari ibyo yagiye ahina cyane. Ariko hari abafashe amajwi y'ababizi neza, bakabyandika uko byavuzwe, barimo André Coupez na Thomas Kamanzi, baganiriye n'umugabo witwaga Gakanisha, bakandika igitabo cyitwa Récits historiques rwanda (1964), kiri mu kinyarwanda no mu gifaransa. Hari n'abandi benshi, barimo Pierre Smith (Le Récit populaire au Rwanda, 1975).


Ibisigo
Ikindi twagereranya n'igitabo, ni Ibisigo. Abasizi bamaraga kurema igisigo, bakakivuga, bakacyigisha abandi, kikaba aho, bikamenyekana ko kiri mu mutwe wa Naka n'uwa Naka. Ibyo Padri Kagame yarabidusobanuriye, atubwira ukuntu abantu bajyaga bamenya ko ariho akoranya Ibisigo bya kera byabwirwaga umwami, bakajya batumanaho, bakazabwira Kagame ufite igisigo iki n'iki, maze akajya iwabo, cyangwa se akabatumira, ibyo bamubwiye akabyandika, akanabifata ijwi mu mashini. Murumva rero ko byari nk'ibitabo koko.

Ibisigo ngo ni bikuru cyane mu Rwanda, ariko uwatumye bikomera cyane, ni Nyiraruganzu Nyirarumaga, Umugabekazi wa Ruganzu Ndori. Bavuga ko we na Ruganzu ubwabo baremye ibisigo byinshi. Uwo Mugabekazi rero yaje gukoranya ibisigo byari biriho, arabiringaniza neza, atuma banarema n'ibindi byinshi, maze ashinga n'Intebe y'Abasizi, ngo bajye babona uko bigisha abato, abasizi babone kugwira. Iyo Ntebe yari ishinzwe no kuzigama uwo mutungo w'Urwanda. Guhera kuri iyo ngoma, Abami n'Abagabekazi bakurikiyeho bakomeje uwo murimo wo kwigisha no kuzigama no gutubura Ibisigo.

Abasizi Padri Kagame yashoboye kugeraho, yabakuyeho Ibisigo 176. Ariko bimwe ntibyuzuye, kubera ko abari babizi neza bapfuye batarabyigisha abandi, cyangwa se Kagame atamenye aho abashakira. Ubundi, nk'uko Kagame yatubwiye, abasizi barakuranwaga i Bwami, kugira ngo Amatorero y'Umwami n'ay'Umugabekazi abone uyigisha, kandi mu bitaramo by'i Bwami hahore hari umuhanga w'Ibisigo. Ariko muri iyo myaka ibintu byari byarahindutse, ikizungu cyarageze i Bwami....

Ibyinshi mu Bisigo Padri Kagame yakoranije, yasize abisohoye mu bitabo, ariko kenshi yakundaga kubishyira mu gifaransa (La Poésie dynastique au Rwanda, 1951, Introduction aux Grands Genres lyriques de l'ancien Rwanda, 1969). Undi wanditse ku Bisigo ni Cypriani Rugamba (La Poésie rwandaise dynastique, source d'Histoire, 1966).


Ubwiru
Urugero rwa kane twatanga ni Ubwiru. Imihango y'Ubwiru yagiraga abiga amagambo yayo, bakayafata mu mutwe, igihe cyagera bakaza bakabivuga, nk'uko abandi bajya gushaka ibyanditse mu bitabo. Iby'Ubwiru nabyo Abami bajyaga babikurikirana, ngo hatagira igitakara cyangwa kigahinduka, kandi bwaragombaga kuguma uko bwatanzwe kera.

Ubwiru bwabwiwe Padri Kagame mu mwaka wa 1945, arabwandika, hanyuma buza gusohorwa na M. d'Hertefelt & A. Coupez mu wa 1964, mu gitabo bise "La Royauté sacrée de l'anéien Rwanda". Icyo gitabo kirimo Ubwiru uko Padri Kagame yabwanditse mu kinyarwanda, maze abo bagabo babuhindura no mu gifaransa, babisohora mu gitabo kimwe.

Imihango y'Ubwiru bayita "Inzira": Inzira y'Umuriro, Inzira y'Ubwimika, Inzira y'Umuhigo, iya Gicurasi n'iy'Umuganura, bityo bityo. Mu gitabo cy'abo banditsi harimo Inzira 17, ariko Kagame yavuze ko yasanze ari 18. Ngo ibuzemo yitwa "Inzira y'Amapfizi". Twizere ko bazayisanga mu bintu bya Padri Kagame, aho ababisigaranye bazabitunganiriza.


Ibindi byiza kandi byinshi
Ibi "bitabo" bine tuvuze ariko si byo byiza byonyine. Urwanda rutunze ibindi byiza byinshi cyane, birimo ibi:
  • Amazina y'inka
  • Ibyivugo
  • Indirimbo z'Ingabo
  • Amateka y'Imiryango
  • Imivugo n'Indirimbo zo kwasira, zo mu muhigo
  • Imigani n'Imigenurano
  • Ibisakuzo
  • Inanga n'izindi ndirimbo
  • Imivugo y'uburyo bwinsi

Hakaba rero n'ibyerekeye imigenzo ya kera, twavuze kare, twibutsa ko ari byo Musenyeri Bigirumwami yibanzeho, by'Imigenzo y'i Rwanda:

  • Kwubaka no gutaha inzu
  • Gushaka no kubyara
  • Kwera no kwirabura
  • Kuraguza no guhanuza
  • Guterekera no kumara urubanza
  • Kubandwa
  • Kuvuba no kwica imvura
  • Kuzira no kuziririza
  • Kuvura, kugangahura, gusubya, guhumanura
  • Impigi, ibirezi, inzaratsi n'ibindi birinda abantu, n'ibindi byinshi

Ibindi bigomba kwigwa no kwandikwa ni ibyerekeye umuco n'imyifatire ya kinyarwanda, ubupfura n'ubutindi, ubuhemu n'ubuntu, n'amatwara yandi yizihiye Umunyarwanda n'atamwizihiye. Hakaba imyuga n'ubukorikori, n'ibindi byinshi biryoheye amatwi n'amaso.

Kandi ntimugire ngo ibi byose muzabisanga kuri iyi site, kuko ari byinshi cyane. Uburyo nibuboneka, ni ukuzashaka abanyabwenge bazajya batwungura ibitekerezo, bakagira umwanya bandikiraho. Ariko bizagenda biza buhoro buhoro, kuko bizaterwa n'amaboko tuzagira, n'imisanzu tuzabona.

Urebye neza, wasanga ibi byose ari ntaho turabigeza mu byerekeye ubumenyi n'ubushakashatsi, ahubwo dusa n'ababipfusha ubusa, tukabikinisha, mbese bikazanatinda bikibagirana, abazavuka ejo bakazasanga byaratakaye. Twizere ko iyi site izagira abo ihwitura, bakibuka ko ibi bintu Abakurambere badusigiye nitubita tuzaba duhemukiye Urwanda.



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